Content of Eco-compensation in our journal

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    Comparison on Eco-compensation between the Domestic and International Studies
    LIU Guihuan, MA Ya, WEN Yihui, ZHU Yuanyuan, XIE Jing
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2018, 9 (4): 382-394.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2018.04.006
    Abstract303)   HTML2)    PDF (367KB)(194)      
    Because it offers an effective means to alleviate current ecological problems and a way to coordinate sustainable economic and social development with protection of the environment, eco-compensation has become a subject of interest to scholars and governments all over the world. A great many studies have been carried out and eco-compensation schemes have been put into practice; there have been many fruitful results. Based on a review of related research and practices, this paper attempts first to discuss domestic and international eco-compensation research and practices in terms of the meaning of eco-compensation and its components (stakeholders, compensation criteria, compensation modes, compensation approaches, compensation funds, and compensation effects). Next, taking into consideration the above discussion, the paper looks at the differences between Chinese and international eco-compensation measures. Finally, existing problems with eco-compensation research and practices in China are summarized and some suggestions are put forward.
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    Transverse Eco-compensation Standards for Water Conservation: A Case Study of the Middle Route Project of South-to-North Water Diversion in China
    YANG Lun, LIU Moucheng, MIN Qingwen, LUN Fei
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2018, 9 (4): 395-406.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2018.04.007
    Abstract395)   HTML0)    PDF (500KB)(591)      

    In China, the distribution of water resources is incompatible with the development of productivity. The construction of South-to-North Water Diversion Project has achieved inter-basin water diversion, and the project can alleviate the uneven distribution of water resources phenomenon effectively. However, in recent years, the aggregate effects of water pollution and water resource shortages have been serious. Establishing transverse eco-compensation mechanisms becomes the key method to achieve sustainable use of water resources. Based on statistical and questionnaire data, this paper uses the Opportunity Costs Method and Willingness to Pay approach to establish a transverse eco-compensation standard calculation model for the Middle Route Project of the South- to-North Water Diversion. The results show that the upper and lower limits of the transverse eco-compensation standard for the Middle Route Project is $2.52 billion and $2.20 billion every year, respectively. However, the paying and receiving standards varied widely among different compensation payers and compensation receivers. Meanwhile, the significant factors influencing the paying willingness of the receiver area citizens were age, education level, average revenue per month, knowledge about the South-to-North Water Diversion Project and recognition of the importance of eco-environmental integrity. This study began with a theoretical analysis, then analysed related problems related to calculating transverse eco-compensation standards for the Middle Route Project of the South-to-North Water Diversion by an empirical study. This empirical study helps to establish effective transverse eco-compensation mechanisma and promotea the development of effective policies and legislation.

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    Factors Affecting the Willingness of Farmers to Accept Eco-compensation in the Qianxi Chestnut Agroforestry System, Hebei
    WANG Jiaran, LIU Moucheng, YANG Lun, MIN Qingwen
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2018, 9 (4): 407-415.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2018.04.008
    Abstract261)   HTML2)    PDF (487KB)(219)      
    Ecological compensation plays an important role in promoting ecological protection. Identifying factors affecting the willingness of farmers to accept eco-compensation has become a focus of ecological economics. The Qianxi traditional chestnut agricultural heritage system is a typical agroforestry system in China and adapts the local environment well. However, local farmers concentrate on chestnut monocultures, driven by short-term profits. The local ecological environment is very fragile. We surveyed 100 local rural households. Based on face-to-face interviews and questionnaires and model assessment, we analyzed factors affecting the willingness of farmers to accept eco-compensation in the Qianxi chestnut agroforestry system of Hebei. We found that many factors influence farmer willingness to accept, including education level, household income, environmental awareness, environmental protection practices and knowledge of ecological compensation. This research provides helps clarify the mechanism of farmer participation in eco-compensation and provides a basis for further development of compensation standards that benefit the local environment.
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    Eco-compensati on in Guanting Reservoir Watershed Based on Spatiotemporal Variations of Water Yield and Purification Services
    WEN Yihui, LIU Guihuan, WU Rui
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2018, 9 (4): 416-425.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2018.04.009
    Abstract314)   HTML6)    PDF (651KB)(183)      
    Guanting Reservoir (GR) is one of the most important water sources for Beijing and neighboring regions. Due to water pollution, it was withdrawn from the system to supply Beijing drinking water; however, after a thorough treatment process, GR was made a reserve water source since 2007. To develop a comprehensive and quantitative analysis of water yield and purification services in the GR watershed, this study selected two time periods: the period when GR was withdrawn from the system supplying local drinking water and the period that it has been designated a reserve water source. The InVEST model was used to evaluate the quantities of water yields, and total nitrogen and total phosphorus outputs from 1995 to 2010 Additionally, the spatiotemporal variations of water yield services and water quality purification services in the GR watershed were analyzed. The results showed that water yield services in the GR watershed first weakened and then became stronger, but weakened overall during the years 1995 to 2010. Water yield capacity in the basin decreased from 1.89×109 m 3 in 1995 to 1.43×109 m 3 in 2010 (a drop of 24.0% in total). Water quality purification services also showed the same tendency. Total nitrogen output decreased from 4028.7 t in 1995 to 3611.4 t in 2010, while total phosphorus decreased from 379.7 t in 1995 to 354.0 t in 2010. Nitrogen and phosphorus purification services were enhanced by 10.4% and 6.8%, respectively. Changes in the climate and land use were the main factors which lead to the changes in the water yield service in the GR watershed. Policies intended to protect water resource have matched the varying trends of water quality purification services during different periods. On one hand, the research results provide a foundation to identify key fields for eco-compensation in the Guanting Reservoir basin. On another hand, the ecosystem service value will increase on the basis of eco-compensation criteria through setting the scenarios of returning farmland to forest and ecological protection. This method directly reflects increases in ecosystem service values that have occurred since measures to protect the ecological environment have been implemented. This method is more persuasive and feasible than using eco-compensation criteria based on regional ecosystem service values determined by land use/ coverage type. It can provide a new way to assess eco-compensation in the Guanting Reservoir basin and other regions.
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    Establishing an Agro-ecological Compensation Mechanism to Promote Agricultural Green Development in China
    JU Xuehai, XUE Yinghao, XI Bin, JIN Tuo, XU Zhiyu, GAO Shangbin
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2018, 9 (4): 426-433.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2018.04.010
    Abstract581)   HTML3)    PDF (318KB)(236)      
    In recent years, grain production has been rising steadily, and the income of farmers has been increasing dramatically, thanks in part to the central government’s policy support for agriculture, rural areas and farmers. However, the conventional production mode leads to overconsumption of agricultural resources, increasingly challenging ecological environment impacts, and higher costs of agricultural products whose quality falls short of public expectations. The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council both put extra emphasis on agricultural supply-side reform, restructuring of the sector, and a shift in the production mode. This paper explains the significance of the agro-ecological compensation mechanism, analyzes the efficacy of China’s current agricultural subsidy policies, introduces related experience from developed countries, elaborates options to establish the mechanism, and proposes policy recommendations to accelerate its development. This analysis concludes that one of the most important approaches to agricultural green development is to shift the existing subsidy policy from one which aims to ensure the yield by purchasing at a protective price, to a green subsidy which focuses on agro-ecological compensation.
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